This course introduces students to the basic components of electronics: diodes, transistors, and op amps. It covers the basic operation and some common. This part of the class contrasts the output characteristics of integrators, differentiators, and converters. Here we analyze the operation of several converters and. 2/23/ section 2_8 Integrators and Differentiators. 1/2. Jim Stiles. The Univ. of Kansas. Dept. of EECS. Integrators and Differentiators. Reading.

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RC circuits work as filters high-pass or low-pass filtersintegrators and differentiators.

Here we explain how, and give sound files examples of RC filters in action. For an introduction to AC circuits, resistors and capacitors, see AC circuits.

Low pass filter High pass filter Filter applications and demonstrations Integrator Differentiator. From the phasor diagram diffefentiators this filter, we see that the output lags the input in phase. High pass filter The voltage across the resistor is IR.

RC filters, integrators and differentiators

Filter applications and demonstrations RC and other filters are very widely used in selecting signals which are voltage components one wants and rejecting noise those one doesn’t want. A low pass filter can ‘smooth’ a DC power supply: Conversely, a high pass filter can pass the signal into and out of a transistor amplifier stage without passing or affecting the DC bias of the transistor.

They can also be used to sort high frequency from low frequency components in a purely AC signal.


Capacitors are often used in ‘cross over’ networks for loudspeakers, to apply the high frequencies to the ‘tweeter’ a small, light speaker and the low frequencies to the ‘woofer’ a large, massive speaker. We include some sound examples here as demonstrations. A speaker already filters the sound, because its impedance is partly inductive, due to the speaker coil. Further, its acoustic efficiency is a strong function of frequency. Nevertheless, you should notice the differences among these sound files, particularly if you switch from one to another in succession.

This sound is quieter than the rifferentiators sample.

Differentiator and Integrator Circuits

We have cut out the frequencies above 1 kHz, including those to which your ear is most sensitive. For more about the frequency response of the ear, see Hearing Curves.

Losing the low frequencies makes the sound rather thin, but it doesn’t reduce the loudness integators much as removing the high frequencies. If you do not notice much difference with the high pass filter, it may be because you are using tiny computer speakers that do not radiate low frequencies well.

Try it with headphones or with hifi speakers. Here we have an AC source with voltage v differentiagors tinput to an RC series circuit. The output is the voltage across the capacitor. The photograph at the top of this page shows a triangle wave input to an RC integrator, and the resulting output. This time the output is the voltage across the resistor.


There are pages on related material at LC oscillations power, RMS values and three-phase circuits Transformers Motors, generators, alternators and loudspeakers Drift velocity and Ohm’s law Electricity and magnetism in Einstein’s relativity Joe’s scientific home page A list of educational links Music Acoustics site. Happy birthday, theory of relativity! As of Junerelativity is years old. Our contribution is Einstein Light: It explains the key ideas in a short multimedia presentation, which is supported by links to broader and deeper explanations.

RC filters, integrators and differentiators From Physclips: Mechanics with animations and film. Low pass filter High pass filter Filter applications and demonstrations Integrator Differentiator A triangle wave upper trace is integrated to wnd a rounded, parabolic wave. From the phasor diagram for this filter, we see that the output wnd the input in phase. At high frequencies, the capacitor ‘shorts out’ the input to the sound card, but hardly affects low frequencies. So this sound is less ‘bright’ than the example above.

At low frequencies, the reactance of the capacitor is high, so little current goes to the speaker. This sound is less ‘bassy’ than those above.

Again we have an AC source with voltage v in tinput to an RC series differentiahors. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License.