after the quantization step in jpeg compression standard. It is based on decomposed application, if encryption and watermark are commutative, some computational .. fingerprint embedding and decryption for video distribution,” IEEE. 1 1 Commutative Encryption and Watermarking in Video Compression Ieee Transactions On Circuits And Systems For Video Technology, Vol. 17, No. 6, June. 1 1 Commutative Encryption and Watermarking in Video Compression 交換式 加密及浮水印法應用在視頻壓縮 IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems for.
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Table 1 for and Table 2 for give the detailed results of our experiments with StirMark. From the left-hand side of 1 it is clear that the watermarking function must be able to act in the encrypted domain, which means that only a limited set of audiovisual features if any is available to the embedder and can be used to embed the mark. If a CWE scheme is available, however, the following protocol between a generic seller and a generic buyer becomes possible, as proposed in [ 4 ]: These watermarks can be used to claim copyright, enforce copying restrictions, or track illegal copies offered on the Internet.
Image Communicationvol. Let the watermark consist of bits. In our modified version of the protocol, we take advantage of the special structure of our watermarking algorithm and strive to eliminate the two drawbacks mentioned above.
The attacker would not, however, be able to prove knowledge of or itself. However, there have been a number of attempts aimed at still images, of which we only review the so-called invariant encryption approach, as it is also used in our audio CWE scheme. Table of Contents Alerts. Common bit depths for representing audio are 16, 20, or 24 bit.
She marks the cover work with the watermark using the algorithm described in Section 4. Applying these results to an audio file of length means that known plaintexts are sufficient to break the cipher, where is the number of possible sample values.
Commutative Watermarking-Encryption of Audio Data with Minimum Knowledge Verification
Note that if the histogram pairs in watermar,ing revealed, but not their order, as in the protocol described in Section 6. Proposed watermarking and encryption scheme Watermark Embedding W: In order to measure gideo perceptibility of an embedded mark, the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio PSNR between the marked work and the original work was computed, as is common in the literature.
Comparison of the first three seconds of signal waveforms. Note, however, that there are only different keys.
The range of the audio sample values is splitted into equal-sized bins. In [ 18 ] the authors investigated the security of permutation ciphers as applied watwrmarking images with greyvalues and found that if plaintexts are known, attacks with a complexity encryptoon possible, requiring frequent key updates.
The first bits of the watermark are used as synchronization sequence sync and should be known to the detector. In order to generate the permutations, the discrete version of Arnolds Cat Map [ 14 ] was used, because it is a well-known chaotic map used by many authors for generating permutations in image ciphering see e.
The proposed protocol has been implemented and extensively tested in Python.
Dispute Resolve Protocols The prime motivation to look at CWE schemes originates from the need to implement so-called Dispute Resolve Protocols, where a rights owner provides a digital media object to a distributorwho in turn sells to some customer.
Chan Supervised by Michael R.
If the histogram bins are broadened i. For a more comprehensive review of existing CWE schemes for still images, see [ 8 ].
The result is the marked work. If the distributor takes the role of the seller in this protocol and the rightsholder performs the en- and decryption operations in steps 1 and 4respectively, the problem mentioned above can be solved, if a CWE scheme for the media object is available.
ad View at Google Scholar J. Impact of different parameter choices on perceptibility. The prime motivation to look at CWE schemes originates from the need to implement so-called Dispute Resolve Protocols, where a rights owner provides a digital media object to a distributorwho in turn sells to some customer.
In particular, if the number of histogram bins is further increased, the robustness decreases accordingly. For example, a permutation cipher can be used for encryption, leaving the global first-order statistics of the commutativw untouched.
Advances in Multimedia
The described synchronization process helps ivdeo make the watermark robust against TSM attacks cf. The basic problem here is that has access to the marked object in plaintext. The audio files include artificially generated signals as well as speech, single instruments, and pop music https: View at Google Scholar S.