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HuntDepartments of Chemistry and Pathology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia Protein expression in bacteria under environmental pressure can now be measured directly by mass spectrometry.


To detect proteins differentially expressed in nutritionally starved E. The resulting mixtures of approximately 60, tryptic peptides in each sample were then analyzed separately by nanoflow primariad and electrospray ionization on a home built Fourier transform mass spectrometer. This latter instrument operates at a resolution of 40, measures masses to three decimal places, and detects peptides at the low attomole level 1.

Subtractive analysis of the two data sets with in house software identified candidate peptides unique to the sample grown in the absence of ammonium chloride. Sequence information on these peptides was obtained by employing nanoflow chromatography, peak parking technology, and electrospray ionization on an ion trap mass spectrometer 1. Parent proteins were identified by searching the resulting collision activated dissociation mass spectra against the E.

The above approach has also been employed to identify proteins uniquely expressed in sporulating bacteria, peptides presented to the immune system from turberculosis infected cells 2class II peptides presented to the immune system in multiple sclerosis, and proteins found uniquely on the surface of cancer cells.

Methodology has also been developed that facilitates: White, Infection and Immunity, White, Nature Biotechnology,20, Baserga, Nature, 5. Strahl, Nature, Drosophila subobscura en el nuevo mundo.

priarias However, such patterns can be evaluated on a geographic scale only from time-series data on replicate sets of populations. Drosophila subobscura is an ideal system for such studies.

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This Old World fly was introduced into the New World just over two decades ago and spread rapidly. Rapid and predictable evolution would be demonstrated if these invaders are evolving clines that are converging on those of the native populations. Our recent surveys show that body size clines have now evolved and remarkably parallel to Old World cline, but that clines in wing shape differ among continents. Remarkably, the inversion clines have seemingly ceased converging on Old World clines.

This time-series of evolution shows that micro-evolution can be extremely fast, slow, or episodic as well as predictable or idiosyncratic.

Institute of Cancer Biology and Danish Center for Human Genome Research, Copenhagen, Denmark Without doubt the sequencing of the human and other important genomes has paved the way to the revolution in biology and medicine that we are experiencing today. We are rapidly moving from the study of single molecules to the analysis of complex biological processes and the current explosion of new and powerful technologies within proteomics and functional genomics promises to accelerate the application of basic discoveries into daily clinical practice, through translational research.

Cancer, which affects a significant fraction of the population, has become a prime target for the new technologies. Indeed, tools for the high throughput analysis of genes, proteins and their complex networks are being used to identify potential targets for drug discovery as well as markers for early detection, recurrence, progression, response to treatment and development of novel therapies.

Here I will review the current status of the proteomic technologies and I will present our strategies for studying bladder and breast cancer using fresh tissue biopsies.

Differential expression and functional synergism between vitamin C and glucose transporters. Peripheral and functional models associated with normal and tumoral cells of the nervous system.

Se han clonado 13 isoformas de transportadores de hexosas o GLUTs. A fines de los 90’s, el mundo de las CT nuevamente se sorprende con dos hallazgos: The bioenergetic signature of cancer.


Sogayar ; Mario H. Flatschart, Christian Colin; Carlos A. Aita, Karin Krogh; Sandro R. Therefore, we are seeking to reveal new growth-inducing genes, putative tumor suppressor genes and tumor markers. All of the isolated genes were characterized by DNA sequencing and Bioinformatics analysis.

The functional role played by some of these gene products was examined by cloning and overexpressing the full-length cDNA, in the sense and antisense directions, in appropriate cell lines. In addition to revealing the primqrias mechanisms underlying cell growth control, drug resistance and carcinogenesis, these genes constitute powerful tools for diagnosis, prognosis, drug bioeguridad and gene therapy.

Casilla D, Santiago, Chile. Salicylic acid SA plays a crucial role in activating defense genes for stress resistance in plants. In plants, GSTs play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics, secondary products and reactive oxygen species.

However, the mechanism by which SA activates transcription of these genes is still not clear. Here we provide evidence-indicating participation of oxidative species. This will allow us to determine the role of as-1 and other promoter sequences in the concerted activation of early genes by SA. This work was supported by research grants and from Fondecyt. Phosphorus P is one of the most important but least available nutrients required for plants. Low availability is due to its rapid immobilization by soil organic and inorganic compounds.

Plants have evolved adaptations in response to this stress, which are directed to recycle phosphate Pi from intracellular stores and to mobilize it from organic P barrwras in the soil. Some species exhibit an additional strategy that allows them to further mobilize Pi from inorganic P stores by releasing organic acids from roots.

Since the ability to withstand P stress will finally depend on Pi acquisition efficiency, our research has focused on the physiological and molecular aspects of the P deficiency-induced organic acid release. By using white lupin Lupinus albus as model, we have shown that the carboxylate release which occurs through specialized proteoid root clusters, it is preceded by carboxylate accumulation, where phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase seems to primarais an important role.

Molecular studies on such root tissue have provided information regarding gene expression implicated in this adaptive trait. Altogether, these studies would allow identifying possible targets for plant improvement, and are based on the fact that P mobilization from soils plays a mayor role in the adaptation of plants to P deficiency.

However, AFPs isolated from fish and insects have been reported to cryoprotect proteins and membranes. To better understand the role of AFPs in plants, we extracted AFPs from winter rye leaves and determined if they protected rabbit lactate dehydrogenase LDH activity and the volume of spinach thylakoids subjected to freeze-thaw cycles. LDH activity was higher after freezing and thawing in solutions containing rye AFPs, but the protection prrimarias no greater than that observed in the presence of bovine serum albumin and was due to bioseguridda nonspecific effects of increased protein concentration.

In this case, the presence of rye AFPs during freezing and thawing was injurious.

In cold-acclimated rye plants, AFPs accumulate in the apoplast where ice forms during freezing, so we examined the freezing of rye leaves by infrared thermography. After nucleating with ice on the leaf surface, nonacclimated rye leaves froze continuously.

In contrast, cold-acclimated rye leaves that had accumulated AFPs froze at a lower temperature. We conclude that the rye AFPs are not cryoprotective in plants, rather they influence the initial freezing process in the tissues by interacting directly with ice. Do they have a cryoprotective role? This protein has the same apparent molecular mass as Dhn5, a previously described dehydrin from barley cv Himalaya.

P was immunolocalized in the vicinity of vascular cylinders and in the epidermis of leaves and stems. Both tissues have been reported to be sites of early ice nucleation during controlled freezing. It is proposed that this protein cryoprotects macromolecules and frost sensitive structures. In this work, P and Dhn5 were purified with the purposes of demonstrating their cryoprotective activity in vitro, and comparing both proteins. Both proteins have similar amino acid composition.


The analysis of proteolytic fragments of Dhn5 and P by reverse phase chromatography showed nearly the same pattern.

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There is only one cryoprotective dehydrin with higher activity than P and Dhn5. Further research biseguridad necessary to establish if the observed in vitro cryoprotective activity of this protein is important for cryoprotection in vivo. The importance of the K barrrras repeat in cryoprotective activity of dehydrins will be discussed.

Our efforts have focused upon those inducible gene products that serve to protect the cell from damage induced by a variety of primariaw including salinity, UV-exposure, severe water-deficit and desiccation. We have employed analysis of expressed sequence tags ESTs to discover a suite of genes that may mediate vegetative desiccation tolerance in T.

ELIPs are postulated to act as transient pigment-binding proteins and protect the chloroplast from light-induced damage that results from the presence of “free” chlorophyll.

ALDHs represent an important pathway for the detoxification of osmotic- and oxidative-stress-induced aldehydes by oxidation to their corresponding carboxylic hioseguridad. The structure, function barreeas expression of these genes will be discussed in detail, and a molecular model for abiotic stress-tolerance in plants will be presented. Improved anti-TNF- a antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis: The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of immunizations with autologous D F pulsed with a lysate derived from the allogeneic melanoma cell line M17 in patients with advanced melanoma, and to assess the immune and clinical responses induced after vaccination.

We have standardized a clinically compatible process to generate a large quantity of monocyte-derived dendritic cells referred to as Dendritophages D F TM which are differentiated in serum-free medium containing GM-CSF and IL Vaccinations were performed at days 0, 22, 43 and 85 with an average of 4.

Half of the cells were loaded with a tumor cell lysate and half with the control antigens hepatitis B surface protein and tetanus toxoid. No severe adverse events related to the vaccination were observed. Preliminary results have shown the presence of specific immune responses against both control and tumor antigens in treated patients after vaccination.

Objective clinical responses have been observed after completion of the treatment in 2 out of 8 evaluable patients. These results indicate that ee type of vaccination is safe and suggest that vaccination with D F may induce tumor specific immune responses and have an anti-tumor effect in vivo. Para el caso especial de las plantas invasoras, se adelantan algunas propuestas para su aprovechamiento y convivencia. Roads as dispersal corridors for alien plants in protected areas of south-central Chile: En bordes bosque-camino se establecieron 15 transectos y registraron todas las especies de plantas vasculares y su abundancia.

Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Santiago. Pinus radiata es una especie invasora. Chile posee la mayor superficie plantada de P. Nosotros evaluamos si P. Increased levels of reactive oxygen species ROS and low oxygen tension at the vessel wall contribute to vascular diseases. HO-1 catabolises heme to generate the antioxidant bilirubin and vasodilator carbon monoxide, which can protect against vascular injury.

Transforming growth factor- b 1 TGF- b 1 promotes migratory and proliferative responses in smooth muscle cells SMC in vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Hypoxia and reoxygenation can result in release of reactive oxygen species and alter TGF- b signalling. It is therefore possible that modulation of TGF- b 1 signalling may play a role in vascular dysfunction through interactions with the HO-1 and nitric oxide pathways.

TGF b -1 signalling was attenuated by over expression bioseguridxd the endogenous inhibitor, Smad7 using an adenoviral vector.