1. al- Aqida: Einführung in die Iman-Inhalte. Zaidan, Amir M.A.: Published by Offenbach, ADIB Verlag. ISBN ISBN Begibt sich Amir Zaidan allerdings in die. al-‘Aqida: Einführung in die Iman-Inhalte by Amir M. A Zaidan(Book) al- ʻAqida: Einführung in die zu verinnerlichenden Inhalte des Islam by Amir M. A. perspective. In particular, the following discussion on the maqasid al- shari`ah . While its fundamentals, among them `aqidah (creed), `ibadah (wor- ship), and .. See, for example, Amir Bhatia Obe, “Corporate Social. Responsibility each source, refer to Abdul Karim Zaidan, Al-Madkhal li Dirasat al-Shari`ah al- Islamiyah.
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Log In Sign Up. This is a literature study on thought that develop within related to NU bodies with Islamic cosmopolitanism discourse for interact and absorb of various element manifestation cultural and insight scientist as a part from discourse of modernism.
This study put any number figures of NU as subject. The results of the study show that elements thought from figure of NU, like Gusdur which includes effort eliminate ethnicity, strength plurality culture, inclusive, liberal, heterogeneity politics, and life eclectic religion, has been trigger for the birth of the modernism of thought in the body of NU. It caused change of religious thought from textual to contextual, born in freedom of thinking atmosphere.
Nahdhatul Ulama, traditionalist, modernist, thought, organization Introduction The dynamic of Islamic thought that continues to develop within the NU organization in the present context, it is difficult to say that NU is still traditional, especially in the area of religious thought.
This can be seen in the concept of inclusivism, cosmopolitanism, and even liberalism developed by NU figures such as Abdurrahman Wahid, Achmad Siddiq, and some young NU figures, such as Ulil Absar Abdalla. This shows a manifestation of modern thought.
Critical thinking as a feature of modernism seems to have become the consumption of NU activists today. Therefore, a new term emerged among those called “re- interpretation of ahlussunah-waljamaah” and the re-interpretation of the concept of “bermazhab” or sect. It means that for contemporary NU leaders, their religious practices and thoughts that have been going on, need to be questioned again, even sued.
Indeed, when the birth of the NU organization inperhaps a traditional Islamic label deserves to be held until the late s. But if looking at the dynamics that exist, especially nowadays, there needs to be a review to question “is the discourse of traditionalist and modernist dichotomy still relevance in the context of Islamic thought movement in Indonesia? Especially the traditional label is given to NU, is unacceptable. Because since returning to Khittah at NU 27th congress in in Situbondo, NU under the leadership of Abdurrahman Wahid GusdurNU made many changes, ranging from vision, orientation, and strategy.
Evidence of intellectual development and Islamic thought in the body of NU, many sponsored by young NU figures. They have progressive religious ideas in response to modernity by using their own tradition base.
They focus not only on modernity but also revitalize their own traditions. These small groups are revitalizing and transforming. In the process of revitalization and transformation, they criticize tradition, not just the traditions of others, but also their own traditions. The implication is that when there is contact with compounds with new knowledge, the reading of the vision of modernism and cosmopolitanism is growing in the body of NU.
Historically the emergence of the flow of modernism in the minds of the NU began when a number of ideas emerged from NU younger activists who were less populist. The institute gave birth to a scientific journal called Tashwirul Afkar, where it published the writings and research results of young NU figures. Likewise, there is The Asia Foundation, The Wahid Institute which publishes a book that speaks of the intellectual development of thought among NU figures.
Those who actively gave birth to writings and scientific papers, generally are educated in traditional rural pesantren who then moved to big cities. Historical studies show that the emergence of the idea of modernism within the body of NU began from the thinking that is developed in the organization of Indonesian Islamic Student Movement PMII.
This movement of young intellectualism of NU, since the s experienced a progressive development of discourse, even touching urgent issues in the body of NU, including questioning the tradition of Aswaja which is a genre of the NU community.
It can even be said that this young NU figure has modernist and liberal ideas, concepts, and ideas compared to those who had already declared themselves modernists.
Evidence of Rejection of Traditionalism Labels It cannot be denied that the intellectual discourse within NU’s body is developing very dynamically. Its roots can be traced backward since the 17th and 18th centuries. The dynamics are, among others, visible from the involvement of the archipelago of ulama or theologian on the network of scholars based in Mecca and Medina. In the middle of 19th century, religious discourse in the archipelago is characterized by the increasingly advanced position of the archipelago of the archipelago in Mecca and Medina.
If previously scholars Jawi more a student of scholars in Haramain, then in the 19th century, began to born international-class archipelago clergy who became professors in Mecca and Medinah. These teachers gave birth to a new network called Zaida Asia Connection.
The intellectual network of NU in the early period was inseparable from the characters. If Hasyim Asy’ari W. The first generation of NU’s contemporary Hashim Asy’ari, such as Bisri Syamsuri and Wahab Hasbullah whose intellectual network is inseparable from the names. In addition to the domestic network, the intellectual genealogy of the NU scholars, as previous scholars, also made Mecca and Medina as a center of intellectual orientation.
All NU scholars in this early period studied in Mecca. They amirr scholars with international al-qqida, have a great influence alaqida the discourse of Islamic intellectualism in the archipelago. For example, Nawawi al-Bantani who received praise from Snouck Hurgronye as the most pious Indonesian of his time, as well as very humble, is a very productive scholar writing various books in various disciplines studied in pesantren.
Nawawi al-Bantani can be regarded as a scholar who opens the horizon of NU intellectualism. With the philosophy of al-muhafadzah-ala-al-qadim al-shalih wa al-akhdzu bi al-jadid al-ashlah maintaining something old and good, and taking something new better.
With this principle, NU’s intellectual property stretched from the time of Prophet Muhammad SAW, the classical, mid-to-modern era today. Its appearance is also not abrupt, but through a long historical process, there is continuity and change.
This shows the importance of using a historical perspective in view of the various thoughts that develop because after all, it is a historical phenomenon. Bulan Bintang, But after research, it turns out what is inherent in the NU organization so far, the traditional label cannot be maintained anymore. The reason is that since the nineteenth century, intellectual development among NU scholars has been worldwide with the formation of intellectual clerical networks in the archipelago Indonesia with ulama in the Middle East Saudi Arabia.
The intellectual mobility of NU is getting more and more excited after entering the s, marked al-qaida the start of many young NU children who not only study in pesantren but also many who continue their studies to public colleges.
The reason for this is because NU is not institutionally involved in political parties any longer, so the organization has plenty of time to think about the education of its young generation. This can be done because NU as the largest Muslim organization in Indonesia, has social capital which is the socio- cultural foundation.
With this social capital, NU organization is able to make adjustments to the development of the times. NU is very accommodating of new ideas to build an egalitarian cosmopolitanism. First, the information channels that exist in the community as a means to spread the idea. Second, the collective action undertaken by social networks owned. Third, the identity and solidarity of NU residents that have been well established. Although, pesantren often gets criticism from its culture aspect, and its teaching system, NU as an organization must be acknowledged to have a big role in the context of developing Islamic science.
The intellectual property, making NU very appreciative and accommodative. These two factors make NU able to interact with all groups and groups.
Compare for example with Muhammadiyah organizations that experienced the intellectual breakdown, for the exclusion of intellectual treasures in the mid-period, because it is mixed with bid’ah and khurafat. Because the Muhammadiyah tradition is limited to generations of friends salaf al- shalih. Therefore, Muhammadiyah according to Azyumardi Azra, precisely when viewed from the objectives and philosophy of the organization is exclusive and closed with new understandings that come from outside.
Modern can also be interpreted with dynamic words, which mean besides the energetic and totality, as well as the ability to adapt and respond creatively to the difficult environment. Dynamics basically includes two processes, namely the re-treatment of old values with new values that are considered more perfect.
Meanwhile, the process of change in value can be called modernization. He is always open and aroused 7 M. Jurnal Studi Islam, Volume 12, Nomor 2 Persinggungan Nahdatul Ulama-Neg ara, Yogyakarta: In contrast, traditional human beings are closed from new ideas, intolerant to new opinions, highly dependent on authority.
At least since the s. Because in this decade in the body of NU experienced a significant change. The change can be seen, that along with the process of de-politicization, it grew a renewed interest in educational development and the tradition of Islamic intellectualism. At first, the intellectual excitement of NU was slow, but at the late s, the passion and the spirit of intellect were experiencing a very fast after the presence of Abdurrahman Wahid Gusdur and Ahmad Shiddiq.
But after entering the s until the 27th NU Congress in in Situbondo which resulted in the decision back to KhittahNU with a very passionate absorbing the values of modernism. Mahfudz Shiddiq, as a symbol of modernity among the NU. In his youth, he dared to appear in public without wearing a cap.
He is even the first NU figure to appear in a suit and tie.
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At that time, wearing a jacket and tie is still forbidden, because it includes the habit of colonizers or people Gentle. He was also able to provide arguments in the presence of NU leaders. In his youth, he likes to exercise and enjoy classical music.
Understanding religion is no longer textual, but contextual.
The goal needs to be seen as progress within the body of NU. Is not civilization’s progress always born in an atmosphere of freedom of thought?
Civilization is driven by creativity minority, a small group that continually strives to drive creative thinking. Even from the results of research, it was found that Muhammadiyah belongs to the traditionalist group.
It is therefore classified into traditionalist groups. This is the condition that makes the younger generation of NU, no longer busy with political affairs, but turning to scientific studies, discussions, seminars, and research. Therefore there was a renewal of discourse 10 Jalaluddin Rakhmat, Rekayasa Sosial: Reformasi, Revolusi atau Manusa Besar?
Rosdakarya, This phenomenon, of course, should be grateful, because during this NU known as a group of archaic, traditionalist and anti-modernism. That is, the twisting of thoughts that occurred in the midst of these young NU people proves that tradition is not always bad and anti-modernism. What is interesting, however, is that this organization is led by open people who reject a form of religious fanaticism and seek to make religious adjustments to modernity. The presence of Abdurrahman Wahid and Achmad Siddiq as determinant figures can provide a new support for NU intellectual arousal.
Interestingly, since the leadership of Abdurrahman Wahid, NU has been increasingly open to external reforms, due to the emergence of vertical and horizontal mobility, especially among the young NUs who migrate to cities and enter the modern higher education world. The consequences of this direction of change, making the map of thought in NU increasingly varied, even gave birth to a number of critical scientists.
In contrast to the Muhammadiyah Organization, which accepted Pancasila as the sole principle, when the time was running out.