The pixel-value differencing (PVD)  scheme provides high imperceptibility to the stego image by selecting two consecutive pixels and. D.-C. Wu and W.-H. Tsai, “A steganographic method for images by pixel-value differencing,” Pattern Recognition Letters, vol. 24, no. , pp. a stego-image imperceptible to human vision, a novel steganographic approach based on pixel-value differencing is used. In this paper various methods of PVD.
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The width of this range is 12, and the embedding bit length is. Besides, it is intuitive to design it by using the width of the power of two. According to PVD embedding scheme Step 5average to and. Second, we notice almost pixel-valus difference values belonging to range are used to embed the same size of data, 4 bits of secret data.
Then we calculate the average payload and average MSE for each range or the perfect square number according to Table 1. The width of the range is no longer a power of two, and if the difference value is located in the first subrange, there is no modification needed.
Suppose, the probability of distribution is uniform. The second was based on selecting the range widths of [2, 2, 4, 4, 4, 8, 8, 16, 16, 32, 32, 64, 64], to provide high imperceptibility. From each block, we can obtain a difference value ; then ranges from 0 to Citations Publications citing this paper. In this section, the proposed scheme is described in three parts: Finally, we modify steganographif to 43, View at Google Scholar.
The following two conditions are discussed.
A Steganographic Method Based on Pixel-Value Differencing and the Perfect Square Number
From Table 5we found the experiment results have larger capacity and better PSNR than those of the theoretical analysis. Otherwise, it is located on the edge area, and it can embed a greater amount of secret data. In spatial or frequency domain several Steganographic algorithms have been proposed for embedding data in digital images as cover media. First, we give a theoretical analysis to show our method is well defined, and then the experiment results show the proposed scheme has higher imperceptibility.
For example, we choose a pair of two consecutive pixels 47,81 from the cover image; then.
Abstract The pixel-value pixel-balue PVD scheme uses the difference value between two consecutive pixels in a block to determine how many secret bits should be embedded. Skip to search form Skip to main content. The first was based on selecting the range widths of [8, 8, 16, 32, 64, ], to provide large capacity. For example, if the pixel value is 34, the nearest perfect square number is 36; then we have range: Showing of 11 references.
Tatwadarshi International Conference on Innovations in…. Ifcompute the length of embedding bits. There are two types of the quantization range table in Wu and Tasi’s method.
Obtain the range in whichwhere and are the lower bound and the upper bound ofand is the number of embedding bits.
Pixel Value Differencing a Steganographic method : A Survey – Semantic Scholar
For example,average payload isand the average error is. Proposed Scheme In this section, the proposed scheme is described in three parts: Table of Contents Alerts. Introduction The pixel-value differencing PVD [ 1 ] scheme provides high imperceptibility to the stego image by selecting two consecutive pixels and designs a quantization range table to determine the payload by the difference value between the consecutive stegamographic.
Secret represents bits binary secret data. The perfect square number provides an elegant mathematical model to develop a new quantization range table, which divides each range into two subranges for embedding different numbers of ,ethod bits. The average payload is computed by the following formula: In addition, we offer a theoretical analysis to show our method is well defined.
There are two important concepts we want to emphasize here. Computeand transform into the binary stream. stegaongraphic
Journal of Applied Mathematics
Therefore, we obtain the average payload and average MSE using the perfect square number, as illustrated in Table 2. Our design in Table 1 still coincides with the basic concept of PVD—embedding a lower amount of secret data in the smooth area and a greater amount of secret data in the edge area.
For each pixel valuechoose the nearest perfect square number we will define the nearest perfect square number laterthen we have range for. For example, we choose a pair of two consecutive pixels 48,80 from the stego image; then. The steagnographic of secret bits hidden in two consecutive pixels depends on the quantization range table.
Our research provides a new viewpoint that if we choose the proper width for each range and use the proposed fpr, we can obtain better image quantity and higher capacity. Yang and Weng [ 3 ] proposed a multipixel differencing method that uses three difference values in a four-pixel block to determine how many secret bits should be embedded, and Jung et al.
Other criteria include embedding capacity and invisibility to human eyes. Most of the related studies focus on increasing the capacity using LSB and the readjustment process, so their approach is too conformable to the LSB approach. Image steganographic scheme based on pixel-value differencing and LSB replacement methods.